• The following sections of A Comprehensive Grammar of The English Language (Randolph Quirk, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech, Jan Svartik, Longman, London & New York, 1985) were consulted in preparing this entry:
Central and peripheral elements of the clause
Finite, non-finite and verbless clauses
Clause elements subclassified
1. The authors of CGEL on verbless and nonfinite clauses, page 996: “Verbless clauses take syntactic compression one stage further than nonfinite clauses and like them are also commonly subjectless. Once again we (cf §14.8) can usually postulate a missing form of the verb be and to [sic] recover the subject when omitted from the context:”
2. The natural tendency to think of verb phrases as being clause elements rather than the realizations of clause elements is strengthened by the “purity” of verb phrases: all the immediate constituents of a verb phrase must be members of the verb word class (or particles that are semantically and grammatically attached to these words). Unlike the members of the other word classes, they cannot be expanded through embedding or modification to include members of other classes.