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conjuncts
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KEY:
word class practice exercise: conjuncts



(1) In recent years applicants for factory work are often rejected if they have not had formal training. Nevertheless/however the majority of workers still learn most of their skills after they are hired.

[‘Nevertheless’ is as good as ‘however’ here because the subjects of both sentences refer to workers.]

(2) When the logging companies arrived, the peasants thought they would soon have schools and hospitals. However that is not how things turned out.

[‘Nevertheless’ is also possible here, but it is not as good as ‘however’ because of the contrast between what the two subjects (‘the peasants’ and ‘that’) refer to.]


(3) The government agency admitted that not all cases of slavery that were investigated were properly recorded. Moreover/in addition/furthermore they admitted that there was no central location where all the records were kept.

[The best place for ‘furthermore’ here would be after ‘acknowledged’]



(4) In his book, the astronomer said that the universe would continue to expand for billions of years. Then it would begin to contract and that process would continue for many more billions of years.

[‘Afterward’ and ‘later’ would not be appropriate here because the idea is that the universe would begin to contract immediately after it stopped expanding.]


(5) The large foreign debt of many developing countries forces them to exploit their forests in a shortsighted way. Consequently/as a result if these debts are reduced the rate of deforestation will probably decline.


(6) The judge reminded the jury that they had to choose between finding the accused man guilty of murder and finding him innocent. Furthermore/in addition he told them that, if they did decide the man was guilty, he would be sentenced to death.


(7) When Tom was driving through his home town, he decided to phone his old friend Harry. As a result/consequently he got into a lot of trouble and spent the next ten years in jail.

[‘As a result’ is better here because ‘consequently’ sounds too formal.]


(8) When he was asked to explain why he had taken so long to finish the job, Dick said that he had to answer 312 phone calls during that week. In addition/furthermore he said, he had replied to more than 400 email messages.

[‘In addition’ is better here because it goes well with the numbers.]



(9) A good Chardonnay wine should be kept for several years before it is drunk. Beaujolais wines, on the other hand/however should be drunk when they are very young.

[‘On the other hand’ is appropriate here but not in (1) and (2) above because (1) is about contrasting ideas or beliefs but (2) is about contrasting events.]



(10) The pre-game supper will be at 5:30 p.m. Then/later/afterward a bus will carry everyone to the stadium for the big game.

[‘Then’ creates the impression that the bus will leave as soon as supper is over. ‘Later’ and ‘afterward’ create the impression that some time will pass between the end of supper and the departure of the bus.]


(11) Jill sat beside Jack’s bed every night during his long illness. Later/afterward he found it hard to believe he had spent so much time so close to her.

[Here, ‘then’ is not appropriate because the implication is that the second ‘event’ did not happen immediately after the first. ‘Later’ creates the impression that Jack’s thoughts about this subject occurred quite soon after the even and lasted for a quite short period — perhaps minutes or hours. ‘Afterward’ creates the impression that Jack continued to think about this, at least occasionally, for a long time.]



(12) In the past, Jill had never been afraid of dogs. Since she was attacked, however/nevertheless she has not been able to look at one without shaking.

[the best place for ‘nevertheless’ would be at the beginning of the sentence.]