GLOSSARY: Kettling 1: meaning and history, p2

spout:
part of a container for liquids that sticks out (“protrudes”) to enable the liquid to be poured without spilling

cognate:
one word is cognate with another if it comes from the same source (i.e. if it has the same “derivation”)

refer:
a word that refers to something names it; when we use that word to name the thing we are referring to it. (“Mention” has a similar meaning.)

encircle / surround:
These two words have a similar meaning, i.e. they are more or less “synonymous.” Something is encircled or surrounded if something else (a wall, fence, buildings, mountains, rope, or a “cordon” of police) is on all sides of it (i.e. “all around it.”)

eventually:
after a period of time has passed (often a longer period than was expected or hoped for)

defeat:
lose (or be beaten) in a contest of some kind (e.g. a war, a game)

contemporary:
two events are contemporary if they happen at the same time; when used as here “contemporary” has a similar meaning to “current” or “present-day”

large-scale:
this phrase has a similar meaning to “large” but is used when referring not to things but to “activities” such as businesses, institutions, and projects.

underway:
if an event is underway, it is happening

armed forces:
this phrase refers in a general way to the army, the navy, and the air force

in accordance with the government’s policies:
a government’s policies are the rules and principles (often based on laws) which it acts on; to do something in accordance with those policies is to “follow” them or to be obedient to them

concentrate:
if things or people are concentrated, they are kept close together in a small area

ghetto:
an area of a city — often a very poor area — mainly occupied (lived in) by members of a particular ethnic or religious group

deport:
forcibly send people out of the country where they have been living to another country, usually their “country of origin”; the word is put in quotation marks in the text because it is the word that was used, euphemistically, by the Germans to describe sending Jews to concentration camps where they were killed.

nickname:
an informal, unofficial name. The Jews living in the ghetto spoke Yiddish, a dialect of German. (The word is most commonly used to refer to “familiar” names of people, e.g. “Johnny” for “John”)

facilitating genocide:
the verb “facilitate” means to make something easy; the noun “genocide” refers to an attempt to kill all the members of an ethnic group (an ethnic group is a group with a particular religion, culture, language, homeland etc.)

dissent:
“dissent” as a verb has a meaning similar to “disagree,” but it is used mainly to refer not to disagreement with another person but with the (usually official) opinions, policies, or acts of a government or other institution. It can also be used to refer to the ideas or beliefs of the majority of the population. (The noun form is “dissident.”)